Vitis Vinifera

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The Vitis vinifera vine is also known as European, although it should more properly be described as Eurasian, the distribution area of origin is not clearly established (once thought from the Trancaucasia). Appeared in Europe in the late Tertiary, but its use goes back to the Neolithic (in the Eastern Mediterranean was cultivated to produce wine grapes in Europe and the Caucasus for the production of table grapes). Sumerian writings dating from the first half of the third millennium BC show that the screw was already then grown for wine. It is uncertain when it is started in Italy, wine-growing: the first evidence in Northern Italy date back to the tenth century BC (Emilia). Widespread in over 40 countries in the world, even though more than half of world production occurs in Europe (especially Spain, Italy and France. The various species of vines are gathered in three groups according all'areale Source: American vines, vines East Asian and Eurasian vine (comprising a single species, Vitis vinifera). The stem or trunk or stump looks twisted and wrapped in flaky that ritidoma longitudinally. The ramifications are called shoots or tendrils when herbaceous shoots shoots shoots when they are when they are detached from the plant after pruning. The leaves of the vine are simple, holistic and downs. Consist of a stalk of varying length and a foil-lobed palmate with five primary veins that may arise as many lobes separated by creeks those breasts. The leaves are also asymmetrical and eterofille (ie on the same branch will have leaves of different shape). The clusters may have different forms depending on the variety. The fruit of the vine is a berry (berry). Whose shape, size, color and flavor vary depending on the variety. Requirements pedoclimatic The screw has a wide adaptability to climate and therefore presents a huge range of cultivation. In environments of southern and insular wine there is the problem of adequate unusual because this is more than enough so it accomplishes the biological cycle of the vine. In north di'Italia but there is a direct correlation between exposure and sugar content. Solar radiation is able to determine the sugar level or the time of ripening grapes. Propagation and rootstocks In the period between 1858 and 1862 appeared in Europe, the Phylloxera of the vine aphid from North America, which spread quickly in all areas under vines proving fatal to the prized vineyards of Europe. Arrived in Italy in 1879. During its gradual expansion in the Italian peninsula destroyed two million hectares of vineyards. The roots of European vines, unlike the American, are sensitive to the bites of phylloxera. The plant deteriorates markedly and then dies. The problem of phylloxera, for the most serious European viticulture. Was solved by grafting the European vines, producing quality wines, at the foot of ivy or its hybrids resistant to the attack of phylloxera: this method is still of general application. Vines of wine grape In the context of Italian wine are more than 300 varieties of wine grapes Vines of table grapes The main grape varieties for table grapes are: - BARESANA: There are several synonyms for this cultivar of ancient origin and probably of Eastern origin: the Turkish, Turkish Uva, Uva di Bisceglie, LATTUARIO White, Emperor, Uva Sacra; great variety and great quality even if it does not stand up well to transport at the plant, berry or very large, spheroid or ovoid, with moderately thick skin, not very consistent and a little bloom, a light golden color or giallocereo, crisp, juicy flesh with flavor rather simple. - CONEGLIANO 218: obtained by the Experimental Institute for Viticulture, crossing Italy x time (IP 105), very similar to the "brother" Conegliano premature appreciated for early maturity and good looks of the bunches; Berry: medium size, weighing average 6.5 grams, round or sub-round, waxy skin deep purplish black color, firm flesh juicy, sweet, pleasant taste with a slightly aromatic. - CONEGLIANO EARLY: obtained by the Experimental Institute for Viticulture, crossing Italy x time (IP 105), a vine is very interesting for the earliness of ripening and the handsome appearance of the bunches and then completed its cycle in 90-95 days. Resists very well to cryptogams and to rot; keeps well and has good resistance to transport; berry medium size, average weight 5.5 grams, round or sub-round, waxy skin, purplish black intense, juicy flesh is firm, sweet, pleasant taste with a slightly aromatic. MATILDE: obtained at the Institute of Experimental Orchards of Rome by Father Beef breeding Italy x Cardinal; excellent grape for its earliness and appearance of the bunch dell'acino. Resists very well to transport to the plant, berry or very large (7gr), ovoid, peel thin enough, consisting of a yellow color, firm flesh rather crunchy and juicy, slightly aromatic flavor. MOSCATO D'ADDA: obtained Vaprio d'Adda in 1897 by Luigi Pirovano from seeds of Muscat, this cultivar can be considered an improvement of Muscat with commercial features better quality, has good resistance to both the transport or storage on the plant and fruttaio; berry medium to large, subsferoidale with pruinose skin thick and consistent, uniform dark purple color and intense, fleshy pulp, sweet, juicy nice muscat flavor. - Moscato di Terracina: Known as "Muscatel Maccarese", named after the main growing area, but the source seems to the area of Terracina (Latina), the best features are indicated in the abovementioned typical areas of cultivation. Sometimes presented too compact clusters that have a low resistance to the attacks of cryptogams and transport; vine dual attitude from which the special wines, berry medium, spheroid, with thick but not very strong, waxy, a golden yellow color or amber, pulp fleshy and juicy, sweet with an intense aroma of Muscat. - Noah: direct producer hybrids obtained by crossing LAMBRUSCA Vitis riparia x Vitis; wine is prohibited for the same reasons of the hybrid Isabella lends itself very well to being planted close to houses to form bowers, since, in principle, not needed treatments; berry small, oval, with thick skin, tough and a little waxy, yellowish green flesh is firm and juicy, with a typical or foxy foxy flavor (strawberry). - Pearl of Csaba: made in 1904 in Hungary by the seed of uncertain origin from M. Stark, good taste characteristics and its precocity, but unsuitable for transport and resistance on the plant, because the prey of birds and bees, berries are medium to small, spherical, waxy skin, thick enough to clear and yellow-flesh juicy, sweet, from the sharp flavor of Muscat. - S. Anna Leipzig: selection of an old variety (Luglienga) spread a little 'everywhere is a variety of local interest features with good taste and for its precocity, but unsuitable for transport and resistance on the plant, because the prey of birds and bees berry medium, spheroidal, thin skin and waxy, yellow or greenish-brown, juicy flesh, sweet, pleasant. - Sultana Bianca: cultivars of ancient origin, derives from Anatolia where it would spread throughout the eastern Mediterranean basin, including many synonyms as Kechmish in Persia Coufurogo in Greece, Sultana in Australia and Thompson Seedless in the U.S. which is a selection widespread in California, excellent both for fresh consumption and for the preparation of juices and distilled, is the grape par excellence for withering; berry medium-small, ovoid or elliptical in shape, flesh crisp, simple flavor, sugary , very pleasant, slightly waxy skin, thin but strong, yellow-golden or light yellow, seedless. - Victoria: varieties selected in Romania by Lepadatu Victoria Condea Ghergo crossing Cardina x Afuz Ali; very good variety for its earliness, productivity, appearance of the bunch dell'acino; resists well to transport to the plant, berry or medium-large (6.6 g), oblong or elliptical, with high resistance to crushing and the posting of yellow color and neutral flavor. Vines of seedless grapes or dried The cultivation of seedless grapes is not widespread in Italy, unlike other countries like the United States. The grapes for drying must have certain characteristics, in particular, must be white, berry and cluster uniform scatter. Among the varieties of this group include: Perlette, Flame Seedless, Maria Pirovano, sultana White and Ruby Seedless.
White table grapes
Black or Red table grape