Almond Tree

Almond Tree

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Amygdalus ommunis L.

Almond (Amygdalus communis) plant native to central western Asia and, marginally, in China. Was introduced in Sicily by the Phoenicians, coming from Greece, so that the Romans called it the "Greek nut". Later it spread to France and Spain and in all countries of the Mediterranean. Arrived in America in the sixteenth century. Belongs to the family Rosaceae, subfamily Prunoideae. Amygdalus communis species belonging to three subspecies of interest frutticolo: sativa (seed with sweet and hard endocarp means includes most of the cultivated species), bitter (bitter seed has the presence of amygdalin) and fragilis (seed with sweet and fragile endocarp). Plant medium development, 8-10 m high, very long-lived. The root system is much expanded. The branches, gray or brown in color, bring wood and flower buds, the buds may be isolated or in groups of 2-3 and various combinations. The leaves are lanceolate, serrate, much closer and clearer than those of the peach tree, bearing glands at the base of the flap and long stalk. The hermaphrodite flowers are white or slightly pink nell'Amygdalus communis L. ssp. bitter, consisting of 5 petals, 5 sepals and stamens 20-40. The fruit is a drupe that has exocarp fleshy, green, sometimes with reddish hues, but more often hairy but smooth, and woody endocarp containing the seed or almond. The almond is characterized by a entomophilous fertilization, so the almond, requires the presence of a number of hives during flowering. Most cultivars are sterile. The time of flowering, but it varies among different environments (from January to March) is somewhat premature. The best soil and climatic conditions for the cultivation of almond trees are temperate areas where frosts are less frequent late. The rootstocks available in Italy are few and not always the most rational adaptability, affinity and resistance to adversity. Franco: from seeds of sweet almonds and bitter, is not suitable for land subject to asphyxia; performs well in poor soils and drought also active lime content exceeding 12%. Sensitive to all Fisiopat radicals, has excellent affinity and induces force average, good productivity with high-quality fruit. Self-fertilizing late-flowering varieties: Filippo Ceo, Genco, Tuono, Supernova. Late-flowering variety is sterile: Ferragnes, Fra Giulio, Mock Barese. Other varieties are: Fascionello, Ferraduel, Jordanolo, Pizza d'Avola, Texas. The harvest takes place between late August and late September, depending on the cultivar. Traditionally fallen fruits are picked up from the ground.